Militias have proven to be an enduring obstacle to peace in war zones around the world. Linked variously to atrocities against civilians or international criminal elements, these groups occupy an uncertain and deeply controversial position in the changing landscape of conflict. Their diversity of form, unorthodox nature and sheer numbers make achieving short-term stability and an enduring peace consistently difficult. Bringing together four intensively researched case studies - the Democratic Republic of Congo, Timor-Leste, Afghanistan and Sudan - Militias and the Challenges of Post-Conflict Peace argues that the international community's 'cookie-cutter' approach to demilitarization is ineffective at meeting the myriad of challenges involving militias. In doing so, the authors propose a radical new framework for demilitarization that questions conventional models and takes into account the reality on the ground.