This book considers the implications, consequences, opportunities and constraints faced when mission and development endeavours coincide. This is explored from various perspectives, including that of history, theology and those involved in mission work and missionary organizations. Despite eighty per cent of the worlds population professing religious belief, religion has been largely excluded from consideration of those seeking to achieve development in poorer countries. Moreover, the work of missionaries has often involved the provision of basic welfare services that in many parts of the world predate the interventions undertaken by professional secular aid workers. Are missionaries doing development work or is development a critical aspect of mission?