Mitochondrial Medicine is a relatively new area where several disciplines from basic science to clinical medicine converge. Mitochondrial medicine deals with diseases that are related to mitochondrial dysfunction due to a number of causes from free radical damage to genetic mutation. A primary feature of mitochondrial dysfunction is impaired cellular bioenergetics. This book is based upon extensive data gathered over 30 years of clinical and experimental research. Internationally recognized authors share their experience and state-of-the-art knowledge in various fields of their expertise such as mitochondrial cardiology, neurology, diabetology, nephrology, immunology, rheumatology, reproductive medicine, sports medicine, and chronobiology, and guide readers through the disease process, from basic biochemical mechanisms to diagnosis to therapeutic aspects. Laboratory evaluation plays a very important role in the diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases, in addition to clinical assessment. This includes analysis of plasma/mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 content, mitochondrial respiratory chain function and oxidative phosphorylation in isolated mitochondria and biopsy material, and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. In addition to standard medical therapy to treat cardiac, CNS, and other involvements in the mitochondrial disease patients, adjunctive nutritional therapy is indicated primarily to improve mitochondrial function. Therapy include coenzyme Q10, a -lipoic acid, carnitine, w -3- and w -6-PUFA, vitamins and polarized light. Mitochondrial Medicine is dedicated to Dr. Frederick L. Crane, discoverer of Coenzyme Q10 in 1957, and to the Celebration of 50th year of Coenzyme Q10 discovery. This book is intended for general medical practitioners, for specialists such as cardiologists, neurologists, and diabetologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacists, and also for graduate students.