The carbonyl group is undoubtedly one of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry, both in its role as reactive center for synthesis or derivatisation and as crucial feature for special structural or physiological properties. Vast and profound progress has been made in all aspects modern carbonyl chemistry. These achievements are, however, rather dispersed in the literature and it is often not easy for the researcher obtain a comprehensive overview of a relevant topic. Modern Carbonyl Chemistry overcomes this inconvenience by collating the information for appropriate themes. In this work internationally renowned experts and leaders in the field have surveyed recent aspects and modern features in carbonyl chemistry, such as cascade-reactions, one-pot-syntheses, recognition, or site differentiation.