Natural disasters remind us that human existence is fragile and vulnerable to forces beyond our control. The capriciousness of Nature is something that we often find very frightening and dreadful. This book presents a critical analysis of the way that modern science and technology are represented as the means to liberate human beings from the arbitrary natural imposition of vulnerability, disease, ignorance, deformity, disability, and premature death. Modern science is based on a technological confrontation with Nature. It is implicated in a societal gamble on the construction of a technological society, as an attempt - a societal experiment - to replace the natural world with a supposedly better artificial one. This societal gamble entails a vision of the ideal society and the human good life as a product of the rational application of technoscientific knowledge and power. The author questions the rationality of this societal gamble and its implications for our lives.