Fungi enjoy great popularity in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and biotechnological applications. Recent advances in the decipherment of whole fungal genomes promise an acceleration of these trends.This timely book links scientists from different parts of the world who are interested in the molecular identification of fungi combined with the exploration of the fungal biodiversity in different ecosystems. It provides a compendium for scientists who rely on a rapid and reliable detection of fungal specimens in environmental as well as clinical resources in order to ensure the benefit of industrial and clinical applications. Chapters focus on the opportunities and limits of the molecular marker-mediated identification of fungi. Various methods, procedures and strategies are outlined. Furthermore, the book offers an update of the current progress in the development of fungal molecular techniques, and draws attention to potential and associated problems, as well as integrating theory and practice.