The first edition of this book, 'Molecular techniques in crop improvement' published in 2002 provided comprehensive information on the latest tools and techniques of molecular genetics and applications in crop improvement, and highlighted molecular genetics from the perspective of plant breeders. Since then, major advances have been made in molecular tagging of genes/QTLs governing complex agronomic traits, identification of candidate genes and in applying marker assisted breeding for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and quality traits. Recent advances in transgenic technologies, genome sequencing and functional genomics offer tremendous opportunities to support plant breeding programs. We have covered new developments in molecular biology and their potential applications in plant breeding in this second edition. The book has a total of 31 chapters and divided into 4 sections: A) Plant breeding in the genomics era, B) Molecular markers and their application, C) Genomics, and D) Transgenic technologies. The book features major topics, which are QTL analysis, comparative genomics, functional genomics, bioinformatics, DNA marker technology automation, gene-based marker systems, application of molecular markers for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in germplasm conservation, gene pyramiding, gene silencing, TILLING, CISGENESIS, microarray, metabolomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, microRNAs, marker-free transformation, gene targeting/homologous recombination, and genetic engineering. This book will be especially useful to scientists engaged in molecular genetics and plant breeding. It will also be a valuable book for the graduate and post graduate students specialising in crop science, genetics, plant breeding and biotechnology.