This book arises from the NATO Advanced Study Institute 'Nanostructured and Advanced Materials for Applications in Sensor, Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Technology' held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, in September 2004. It comprises a variety of invited contributions by highly experienced educators, scientists, and industrialists, and is structured to cover important aspects of the field, from underlying principles, synthesis routes, characterizations, applications, and detailed considerations of commercial viability. In addition, the book consists of a selection of contributed articles describing various aspects of their current research and development activities. Several related topics on advanced electronic materials for sensor, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications are also included in the book. It will be of considerable interest and value to those already pursuing or considering careers in the field of nanostructured materials and nanotechnology, in general. It also serves as a valuable source of information for those interested in related aspects of the field, such as science and technology of thin film materials and devices.