Nanotechnology provides us with tools to create functional materials, devices, and systems by controlling materials at the atomic and molecular scales by making use of novel properties and phenomena. Considering that most chemical and biological sensors, as well as many physical sensors, depend on interactions occurring within the nanoscale range, the impact that nanotechnology will have on the sensor world is significant. Nanotechnology-enabled sensors find applications in several fields such as health and safety, medicine, process control and diagnostics. Nanostructured materials will be increasingly used for the development of next-generation of chemical, physical and biosensors, attracting interests in the scientific and industrial communications. This book provides the reader with information on how nanotechnology enabled sensors are currently being used and how they will be used in the future in such diverse fields as communications, building and facilities, medicine, safety, and security, including both homeland defense and military operations.