Leading economists analyze the new directions that subdisciplines of economics have taken in the face of modern economic challenges. These essays represent invention and discovery in the areas of information, macroeconomics and public policies, international trade and development, finance, business, contracts, law, gaming, and government, as these areas of study evolve through the different phases of the scientific process. They offer a wealth of factual information on the current state of the economy. Theoretical and empirical innovations conceptualize reality and values in different ways from their predecessors. Together the essays offer the reader a balanced look at the various fields, approaches, and dimensions that comprise future directions in economic theory, research, and practice. The extensive introduction by the editors not only summarizes and reviews the implications of the contributions presented in the volume, but also examines how scientific progress takes place, with special reference to economics and finance.