The leading cause of death in Western countries is coronary heart disease, the most common of which is acute myocardial infarction. This life-threatening condition is caused by the progression of atherosclerosis characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in vascular walls. Development of atherosclerosis is greatly enhanced by major cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension. In recent years, the molecular basis for these lifestyle-related diseases has been extensively elucidated. This book conveys the latest information from basic and clinical research in these diseases, including regulation of feeding in the central nervous system that controls energy homeostasis, lipid metabolism in relation to atherosclerosis, and novel risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as sleep apnea syndrome, small dense low-density lipoproteins, and periodontitis.