This book examines the role of NGOs in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the fight to end global poverty more generally. The MDGs arguably represent the greatest opportunity and challenge for alleviating poverty and improving quality of life globally in our time. Their achievement will require maximizing all available resources and capitalizing on all available actors. NGOs have been highlighted by governments and global leaders as an important actor, but without better understanding of their potential, roles, and challenges to their effectiveness, we are not likely to fully tap their contribution and thus will be further challenged in achieving the MDGs. This book presents and examines general NGO roles and comparative advantages, as well as roles and opportunities specific to particular MDG sectors.