In the present monograph, we develop the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures and discuss its applications to strongly non-equilibrium conditions. The main attention is focused on the influence of non-equilibrium kinetics on gas dynamics and transport properties. Closed systems of fluid dynamic equations are derived from the kinetic equations in different approaches. We consider the most accurate approach taking into account the state-to-state kinetics in a flow, as well as simplified multi-temperature and one-temperature models based on quasi-stationary distributions. Within these approaches, we propose the algorithms for the calculation of the transport coefficients and rate coefficients of chemical reactions and energy exchanges in non-equilibrium flows; the developed techniques are based on the fundamental kinetic theory principles. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles. The comparison of the results obtained within the frame of different approaches is presented, the advantages of the new state-to-state kinetic model are discussed, and the limits of validity for simplified models are established. The book can be interesting for scientists and graduate students working on physical gas dynamics, aerothermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, non-equilibrium physical-chemical kinetics, and kinetic theory of gases.