With the development of neural science, knowledge of the molecules and neurons that comprise the brain has increased exponentially in the past two decades. In Novel Trends in Brain Science, leading neuroscientists from Japan and Taiwan describe the latest and most relevant research in brain science, including state-of-the-art brain-imaging technologies such as fMRI, MR-DTI, TMS, and MEG, and also discuss learning, memory, emotions, and pain. With a wide range of contributors, the book presents valuable insights into functional neuroimaging, white matter tractography, synaptic plasticity, emotional memory storage, and other recent cognitive brain research. An entirely new and unique field of study is introduced in the learning and memory section: the relationship between well-developed oral cavities and highly advanced functions of the brain. In its entirety, this compilation is a valuable resource for neuroscientists, radiologists, odontologists, and gerontologists, as well as for students of dentistry and medicine.