The protection mode of most available vaccines is based on antibody responses. Since efficient immune responses to many pathogens rely on activating all arms of the immune system, traditional vaccine development does not provide efficient protection against many diseases. Novel vaccination strategies need to allow presentation of antigens that activate the full array of the immune response in the right composition and should prevent pathogen entry by mobilizing the mucosal immune response. New technological advances optimize the immunogenicity of 'live' and sub-unit vaccines.This book offers an interdisciplinary overview on research and future strategies for rational vaccine design based on recent developments in molecular biology and immunology. It covers new aspects of the immunological interplay between prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems as well as achievements in the development of novel vaccine candidates.Chapters on edible vaccines, on vaccines against bioterror agents and on economical and safety aspects of novel vaccine development round off this title.