This monograph develops the theory of noise mechanisms and measurements, and describes general noise characteristics and computational methods. The vast ambient noise literature is concisely summarized using theory combined with key representative results.The air sea boundary interaction zone is described in terms of nondimensional variables requisite for future experiments. Noise field coherency, rare directional measurements, and unique basin scale computations and methods are presented. The use of satellite measurements in these basin scale models is demonstrated. A series of appendices provides in-depth mathematical treatments which will be of interest to graduate students and active researchers.