The therapeutic options for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative and traumatic diseases such as spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, etc. have experienced enormous progress over recent years. Despite these encouraging developments, available therapies are only partially effective, and the ultimate goal is still far from being attained. Improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and demyelination has led to a variety of new therapeutic targets and approaches. In addition to modulation of the inflammatory process (MS) and classical neuroprotection (stroke, AD), therapeutic approaches focusing on active remyelinization and neuronal regeneration have become increasingly important. Based on current concepts, this book summarizes new therapeutic approaches.