This book provides a general understanding of Ottoman diplomacy in relation to the modern international system and includes chapters explaining the formulation and conduct of Ottoman foreign policy and analysis of diplomatic mechanisms in the Ottoman Empire. In contrast to the conventional view, the Ottoman attitude toward diplomacy is described as positive and favourable. It is shown that the Ottoman Empire was diplomatically integrated into Europe, though it had its own characteristics different from European diplomacy. The conduct of Ottoman diplomacy in its ad hoc and permanent periods are analyzed and two striking case studies from the late fifteenth and late seventeenth centuries are included to show Ottoman engagement with Renaissance diplomacy and its performance at Karlowitz despite the military defeats that preceded the negotiations. The institution of dragomans was treated within the context of British embassy in Istanbul. The book concludes with a review of the primary sources for the study of Ottoman diplomacy.