Research and development of various parallel mechanism applications in engineering are now being performed more and more actively in every industrial field. Parallel robot based machine tools development is considered a key technology of robot applications in manufacturing industries. The material covered here describes the basic theory, approaches, and algorithms in the field of parallel robot based machine tools. In addition families of new alternative mechanical architectures which can be used for machine tools with parallel architecture are introduced. Given equal importance is the design of mechanism systems such as kinematic analysis, stiffness analysis, kinetostatic modeling, and optimization.