Half a billion years of evolution have turned the eye into an unbelievable pattern detector. Everything we perceive comes in delightful multicolored forms. Now, in the age of science, we want to comprehend what and why we see.Two dozen outstanding biologists, chemists, physicists, psychologists, computer scientists and mathematicians met at the Institut d'Hautes Etudes Scientifiques in Bures-sur-Yvette, France. They expounded their views on the physical, biological and physiological mechanisms creating the tapestry of patterns we see in molecules, plants, insects, seashells, and even the human brain. This volume comprises surveys of different aspects of pattern formation and recognition, and is aimed at the scientifically minded reader.