The reforms initiated by Peter the Great transformed Russia not only into a European power, but into a European culture--a shift, argues James Cracraft, that was nothing less than revolutionary. The author of seminal works on visual culture in the Petrine era, Cracraft now turns his attention to the changes that occurred in Russian verbal culture. The forceful institutionalization of the tsar's reforms--the establishment of a navy, modernization of the army, restructuring of the government, introduction of new arts and sciences--had an enormous impact on language. Cracraft details the transmission to Russia of contemporary European naval, military, bureaucratic, legal, scientific, and literary norms and their corresponding lexical and other linguistic effects. This crucial first stage in the development of a "modern" verbal culture in Russia saw the translation and publication of a wholly unprecedented number of textbooks and treatises; the establishment of new printing presses and the introduction of a new alphabet; the compilation, for the first time, of grammars and dictionaries of Russian; and the initial standardization, in consequence, of the modern Russian literary language. Peter's creation of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, the chief agency advancing these reforms, is also highlighted. In the conclusion to his masterwork, Cracraft deftly pulls together the Petrine reforms in verbal and visual culture to portray a revolution that would have dramatic consequences for Russia, and for the world. Table of Contents: Figures Preface Note on Dates and Transliteration 1. Introduction Historiography Language, Culture, Modernity Russian before Peter 2. The Nautical Turn Russia in Maritime Europe The Naval Statute of 1720 Other Nautical Texts Institutionalization 3. Military Modernization Military Revolutions: Europe to Russia The Military Statute of 1716 Textbooks and Schools 4. Bureaucratic Revolution Advent of the Modern European State The Petrine State The General Regulation of 1720 Regulations and Justifications 5. Science and Literature Geometry, Geography, History Eloquence, Theology, Philosophy The Academy 6. The Language Question The Print Revolution in Russia Lexical Proliferation Dictionaries and Grammars Russian after Peter 7. Conclusion The Petrine Revolution in Russia The Persistence of Muscovy Abbreviations Appendix I: Texts Appendix II: Words Notes Bibliography Index No previous author has attempted to document the changes in the Russian language during Peter the Great's reign by setting such a wide range of texts in historical context -- with full reference to the European background -- in a discussion accessible to non-specialists. James Cracraft extends the definition of literature beyond belles lettres and private writings, in which the Petrine era is relatively poor, to 'verbal culture,' in which it is rich, thereby offering a much wider range of material from a crucial age of reform and allowing exploration of such phenomena as the vocabulary of political power. In no other work in print in English can one find such detailed expositions of the publishing history and contents of such key texts as the Naval Statute and Military Statutes. Cracraft's judicious interpretation will be invaluable to serious students of Russian history. This is a work of immense erudition and a major contribution to scholarship.--Lindsey Hughes, University College London

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