The book presents a new theoretical approach to phase resetting and stimulation-induced synchronization and desynchronization in a population of oscillators. The author uses stochastic methods from statistical mechanics and applies his theory to models of practical importance in physiology and neuroscience. He makes the book accessible to readers not familiar with the mathematical formalism. The results are presented and additionally explained without formulae, particularly with a view to the interests of neuroscientists. The author also proposes improvements to stimulation techniques as used by neurologists and neurosurgeons in the context of Parkinson's disease and MEG/EEG data analysis. The book is written for researchers and graduate students but it can also benefit medical practitioners.