This book brings together diverse recent developments exploring philosophy of mathematics in education. The unique combination of ethnomathematics, philosophy, history, education, statistics and mathematics offers a variety of different perspectives from which existing boundaries in mathematics education can be extended. The ten chapters in this book offer a balance between philosophy of and philosophy in mathematics education. Attention is paid to the implementation of a philosophy of mathematics within the mathematics curriculum to become a philosophy in mathematics education. In doing so, many chapters provide ideas for actual practice and some practical examples directly usable in teacher training and in mathematics classrooms.