This work provides a comprehensive overview of our theoretical and observational understanding of the interstellar medium of galaxies. With emphasis on the microscopic physical and chemical processes in space, and their influence on the macroscopic structure of the interstellar medium of galaxies, the book includes developments in this area of molecular astrophysics. The various heating, cooling, and chemical processes relevant for the rarefied gas and submicron-sized dust grains that constitute the interstellar medium are discussed in detail. This provides a firm foundation for an in-depth understanding of the ionized, neutral atomic, and molecular phases of the interstellar medium. The physical and chemical properties of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and their role in the interstellar medium are highlighted, and the physics and chemistry of warm and dense photodissociation regions are discussed. This is an invaluable reference source for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and research scientists.