This is the first book aimed at developing a common language among scientists working in the field of Phytoremediation. Authors of the main chapters are leading scientists in this field: some of them were among the first to have suggested the use of hyperaccumulator plants for extraction of metals from soils. Members of an EU funded research project on the feasibility of phytoextraction of metals (PHYTOREM project) from contaminated soils were also among the lecturers. Manuscripts based on the lectures presented at the ASI were revised to take into account ASI participants comments and suggestions, and went through a round of peer review and editing. Discussion summaries and practical recommendations, emanating from the working group and round table discussions, are provided in separate chapters at the end of the book.