Plant Ecology, Herbivory, and Human Impact in Nordic Mountain Birch Forests


The successful long-term sustainable management of forests is dependent on our knowledge of their history, present state, and responses to changing environmental conditions. In this light, the text evaluates the Nordic mountain birch ecosystem with examples from different sites in the Nordic countries and Scotland.The authors analyse vegetation and soils, and investigate the influence of climate change, insect pests, grazing pressure by sheep and reindeer, construction of roads and other consequences of increasing tourism. The possibilities for a sustainable use of the Nordic mountain birch forests are discussed in various models.

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