Since the advent of the mantle plume hypothesis in 1971, scientists have been faced with the problem that its predictions are not confirmed by observation. For thirty years, the usual reaction has been to adapt the hypothesis in numerous ways. As a result, the multitude of current plume variants now amounts to an unfalsifiable hypothesis. In the early 21st century demand became relentless for a theory that can explain melting anomalies in a way that fits the observations naturally and is forward–predictive. From this the Plate hypothesis emerged–the exact inverse of the Plume hypothesis. The Plate hypothesis attributes melting anomalies to shallow effects directly related to plate tectonics. It rejects the hypothesis that surface volcanism is driven by convection in the deep mantle. Earth Science is currently in the midst of the kind of paradigm–challenging debate that occurs only rarely in any field. This volume comprises its first handbook. It reviews the Plate...

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