This book offers fascinating and modern perspectives into the theory and practice of the historical subject of polynomial root-finding, rejuvenating the field via polynomiography, a creative and novel computer visualization that renders spectacular images of a polynomial equation. Polynomiography will not only pave the way for new applications of polynomials in science and mathematics, but also in art and education. The book presents a thorough development of the basic family, arguably the most fundamental family of iteration functions, deriving many surprising and novel theoretical and practical applications such as: algorithms for approximation of roots of polynomials and analytic functions, polynomiography, bounds on zeros of polynomials, formulas for the approximation of Pi, and characterizations or visualizations associated with a homogeneous linear recurrence relation. These discoveries and a set of beautiful images that provide new visions, even of the well-known polynomials and recurrences, are the makeup of a very desirable book. This book is a must for mathematicians, scientists, advanced undergraduates and graduates, but is also for anyone with an appreciation for the connections between a fantastically creative art form and its ancient mathematical foundations.