This book is directly derived from a NATO-sponsored international meeting on problems of high altitude medicine and biology, which was held on the shores of lake of Issyk-Kul, in Kyrghyzstan, in June 5-6, 2006. It was a surprise for several European and North and South-American scientists to discover the still on-going momentum high level altitude physiology research, which was extremely active but insufficiently acknowledged in this remote Central Asian country at the time of the USSR. Accordingly, the setting was perfect for numerous positive scientific interactions, exchanges of ideas, and structuring of new international collaborations. Overall, the meeting was an ideal mix of cell biology, integrative physiology and medical applications. Hypoxia is and remains a major public health issue in many populated mountainous areas all over the world. We are sure that this book will be become a long-lasting essential reference.