Within nanoscience, an emerging discipline is the study of the physics and chemistry of single molecules. Molecules may be considered as the ultimate building blocks, and are therefore interesting for the development of molecular devices and for surface functionalization. Thus, it is interesting to study their properties when adsorbed on a suitable substrate such as a solid or crystal surface, and also for their potential applications in nano- or molecular-electronics and nanosensing. Investigations have been made possible by the advent of high resolution surface imaging and characterization techniques, commonly referred to as Scanning Probe Microscopes.This book focuses on the fascinating properties of the single molecules, and the difference between single molecules and ensembles of molecules is emphasized. As the first book intended for graduate courses in the field, after each chapter, students should be able to answer the question: “What physical or chemical properties do you learn from a single molecule in this particular context?” Contributed by experts across the disciplines, the book provides useful reference material for specialized practitioners in surface science, nanoscience and nanoelectronics.