Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential for human cell metabolism. As precursors of a very large and extremely versatile family of signaling compounds they play a key role in intracellular communication. Eicosanoids constitute one of the most abundant and prominent subfamilies of these fatty acid derivatives which are formed primarily along oxidative pathways. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and related eicosanoids have a modulatory function in mammalian cells and are responsible for tissue responses such as inflammation or wound repair. Increasing activity in eicosanoid research sheds new light on today's most common diseases including atherosclerosis, cancer, Alzheimer's, allergies, and rheumatic diseases. The recent advances already have far-reaching implications in medicine. This detailed account, written by leading experts, covers the ground-breaking developments in recent eicosanoid research. The topics span eicosanoid biogenesis, new aspects of their pathophysiology, for example their influence on the cardiovascular system, as well as the clinical application of synthetic eicosanoids and their antagonists. Researchers and students working in biochemistry or in pharmaceutical, physiological, medicinal and neurochemistry will value this informative introduction to one of the most rapidly developing fields in cell biology.