This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical foundations of quantum tunneling, stressing the basic physics underlying the applications. The topics addressed include exponential and nonexponential decay processes and the application of scattering theory to tunneling problems. In addition to the Schrödinger equation approach, the path integral, Heisenberg's equations and the phase space method are all used to study the motion of a particle under the barrier. Extensions to the multidimensional cases and tunneling of particles with internal degrees of freedom are also considered. Furthermore, recent advances concerning time delay and tunneling times and some of the problems associated with their measurement are also discussed. Finally, some examples of tunneling in atomic, molecular, nuclear and condensed matter physics are presented.