Racism, xenophobia and intolerance are world-wide problems, which affect the life-chances of individuals and development prospects of many countries. Much of the history of efforts to establish a responsive public sphere can be seen as struggles to demolish racial barriers and incorporate previously excluded groups in the system of rights and obligations that defines citizenship. The consolidation of citizenship requires promotion of social justice and equitable governance. However, these are often difficult to accomplish because they deal with redistributive issues. They may be seen in zero-sum terms by some citizens. Potential losers may resist reforms, while those who stand to gain may not be strong enough to defend them. Concerns for fiscal prudence may act as additional constraints. Leading experts address these issues using a wide range of examples from Australia, New Zealand, Latin America, Southern Africa, the Middle East, South and South East Asia, the United States and Western Europe.

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