Recent work has shown that Raman spectroscopy has potential to become one of the most important tools for nanoscience and nanometrology, i.e. for standardization and industrial quality of goods based on nanoscience. However, Raman spectroscopy is perceived as being too complicated for a non-specialist. This book is aimed to be a pedagogic reference to educate the community on how they can use Raman spectroscopy to study and characterize nanostructured materials. It will drive students, researchers and engineers towards the development of future research and applications of new forms of carbon as well as the use of Raman spectroscopy for nanometrology of carbon nanotubes, nanographite and graphene.