When the Japanese Empire went to war with the Allies in December 1941, it had already been fighting with China for 10 years. During that time it had conquered huge areas of China, and subjugated millions of people. The Japanese needed to control the Chinese population in these occupied territories, and for this reason they set up governments from amongst the leaders of the Chinese who were willing to co-operate with them. These so-called 'puppet' governments were designed to rule on behalf of the Japanese while firmly under their overall control. In turn, the puppet governments needed their own armed forces to help them maintain control over the populace and so they raised their own 'independent' armed forces. Although poorly armed and equipped, these forces had an influence on the Japanese war effort through sheer numbers.The troops were dismissed as traitors by the Chinese fighting the Japanese, and they were equally despised by the Japanese themselves. The troops were motivated by a range of reasons, from simple survival to a loyalty to their commander. The fact that so many Chinese were willing to fight for the Japanese was embarrassing to all sides, and for this reason has been largely ignored in previous histories of the war in the East. In the first of a three-volume series, Philip Jowett describes in detail the organisation, training, actions, uniforms and equipment of these forces, including detailed orders-of-battle. Volume 1 contains many rare and previously unpublished photos, as well as colour plates illustrating the uniforms and insignia of the armies. The air forces and navies of these states are also described in detail, including colour aircraft profiles. This is a fascinating insight into a hitherto-neglected aspect of World War II and Asian military history. This is a limited edition reprint of just 500 copies, each numbered copy signed by the author.