This book deals with key issues and trade-offs in R&D strategy and organisation, paying attention especially to dynamic competitive contexts where technology plays a key role. These topics are treated from the perspective of the decision taker, i.e. the manager who makes decisions in terms of R&D strategy and organisation. The book addresses typical problems of large firms having structured R&D and operating businesses where R&D is a source of competitive advantages. Although it focuses strongly on R&D, it sees R&D as a part (a key part) of the process of technological innovation, and therefore as an activity to be strongly and appropriately integrated with other functions to make innovation successful.This book is primarily conceived as an academic review of research topics. Therefore the main audience is composed of scholars, researchers and PhD students. However, the book can be useful for postgraduate students taking MBA electives, or students attending courses on technology management. It is also relevant to R&D managers and, more generally, people responsible for units concerned with technological innovation.