Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) can lead to loss of skills and to mental cognitive behavioural deficits. Paraplegia after Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) means a life-long sentence of paralysis, sensory loss, dependence and in both, TBI and SCI, waiting for a miracle therapy. Recent advances in functional neurosurgery, neuroprosthesis, robotic devices and cell transplantation have opened up a new era. New drugs and reconstructive surgical concepts are on the horizon. Social reintegration is based on holistic rehabilitation. Psychological treatment can alleviate and strengthen affected life. This book reflects important aspects of physiology and new trans-disciplinary approaches for acute treatment and rehabilitation in neurotraumatology by reviewing evidence based concepts as they were discussed among bio and gene-technologists, physicians, neuropsychologists and other therapists at the joint international congress in Brescia 2004.