Reading, using vision or touch, translates abstact marks on a page into an understanding of ideas. The perceptual, linguistic and cognitive processes involved in sighted reading have been widely studied, but the use of touch raises new issues. Drawing on her research with novice and fluent braille readers, Susanna Millar examines how people initially process braille and how skill with sounds, words, meaning and spelling patterns influence processing. The main focus is on braille but findings on the 'Moon' script, vibrotactile devices, maps and 'icons' are also considered in the context of their practical implications and access to computer technology. Reading by Touch will be of enormous interest to all teachers and students of tactual reading systems, and makes a significant contribution to theories in cognitive and developmental psychology.