Operations research uses quantitative models to analyze and predict the behavior of systems and to provide information for decision makers. Two key concepts in such research are optimization and uncertainty. Typical models in stochastic operations research include queueing models, inventory models, financial engineering models, reliability models, and simulation models. This book contains a collection of peer-reviewed papers from the International Workshop on Recent Advances in Stochastic Operations Research (2007 RASOR Nanzan) held on March 5–6, 2007, at Nanzan University, Nagoya, Japan. It enables advanced readers to understand the recent topics and results in stochastic operations research.