The results presented in this book are a product of research conducted by the author independently and in collaboration with other researchers in the field. In this light, this work encompasses the most recent collection of various concepts of regularity and nonsmooth analysis into one monograph. The first part of the book attempts to present an accessible and thorough introduction to nonsmooth analysis theory. Main concepts and some useful results are stated and illustrated through examples and exercises. The second part gathers the most prominent and recent results of various regularity concepts of sets, functions, and set-valued mappings in nonsmooth analysis. The third and final section contains six different application, with comments in relation to the existing literature.