This book is a guide to writing scientific research proposals for submission to funding agencies. It approaches the topic by placing it in the larger context of planning and carrying out a research project, offering guidance on selecting a suitable research topic, organizing and planning the project, identifying a funding agency, writing the proposal, and managing the funded project. The book also discusses the ethical responsibilities of the researcher, the proposal review process, and how to deal with declination of a proposal. The author's 25 years of experience as an NSF program officer lend the book a unique insider's perspective on the proposal writing and research funding process. Because of that experience, the author is able to anticipate and answer the questions that researchers most frequently ask when preparing to write a proposal, and also to explain how program officers think about proposals when they are making funding decisions.