This volume includes up-to-date field research on the longest-studied and best known of lemur species. It contains articles by scientists from America, Europe, Japan and Madagascar, who combine their knowledge to describe an animal which is unique among primates, a lemur whose group structure resembles that of many monkeys, but whose behavior does not. Ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, are female dominant, prone to evict their cousins from social groups, and live at population densities ten times greater than monkeys. The volume treats ecology, behavior, and physiology to present current research on this unique primate. The papers review past research and add new dimensions of research related to nutrition, health, hormonal biology, plant ecology, behavioral ecology, and demography of Lemur catta.