The ending of the Cold War was expected to herald a new era of global peace. Instead, it appears that new conflicts have sprung up around the world. What is remarkable abut these new conflicts, as we now know in the post September 11th world, is that many of them appear to have their roots in the past. This book looks at this issue from the perspective of different academic disciplines (Psychology, Eductaion, Anthropology) with evidence drawn from a number of conflicts from a variety of settings - South Africa, Western Europe, Australia, Northern Ireland, the United States and the Middle East. these examples, involving indigenous peoples and contemporary conflicts, are used to examine the persistence of social memories and to sggest how this information might be used in future conflict resolution and in education for a more peaceful world.