This anthology, consisting of two volumes, is intended to equip background researchers, practitioners and students of international mathematics education with intimate knowledge of mathematics education in Russia.Volume I, entitled Russian Mathematics Education: History and World Significance, consists of several chapters written by distinguished authorities from Russia, the United States and other nations. It examines the history of mathematics education in Russia and its relevance to mathematics education throughout the world. The second volume, entitled Russian Mathematics Education: Programs and Practices will examine specific Russian programs in mathematics, their impact and methodological innovations. Although Russian mathematics education is highly respected for its achievements and was once very influential internationally, it has never been explored in depth. This publication does just that.