This book describes the sampling and statistical methods used most often by behavioral ecologists and field biologists. Written by a biologist and two statisticians, it provides a rigorous discussion together with worked examples of statistical concepts and methods that are generally not covered in introductory courses, and which are consequently poorly understood and applied by field biologists. The first section reviews important issues such as defining the statistical population and the sampling plan when using non-random methods for sample selection, bias, interpretation of statistical tests, confidence intervals and multiple comparisons. After a detailed discussion of sampling methods and multiple regression, subsequent chapters discuss specialized problems such as pseudoreplication, and their solutions. It will quickly become the statistical handbook for all field biologists.