The book presents the state-of-the-art of forest resources assessments and monitoring and provides links to practical applications of forest and natural resource assessment programs. It gives an overview of current forest inventory systems and discusses forest mensuration, sampling techniques, remote sensing applications, geographic and forest information systems, and multi-resource forest inventory. In addition to the assessment of the productive functions of forests, particular attention is given to the quantification of non-wood goods and services and the relationship of forests to other landscape elements. All methodology is presented in the framework of sustainable management of the multiple functions that forests provide to the natural environment and to society. The book was developed as a reference text for (forest) biometricians, practitioners involved in forest and natural resources assessment and monitoring programs, and graduate students with a strong interest in becoming forest inventory specialists.