The goal of this book is to provide a general overview of the rapidly developing field of novel scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques for characterization of a wide range of functional materials, including complex oxides, biopolymers, and semiconductors. Many recent advances in condensed matter physics and materials science, including transport mechanisms in carbon nanostructures and the role of disorder on high temperature superconductivity, would have been impossible without SPM. The unique aspect of SPM is its potential for imaging functional properties of materials as opposed to structural characterization by electron microscopy. Examples include electrical transport and magnetic, optical, and electromechanical properties. By bringing together critical reviews by leading researchers on the application of SPM to to the nanoscale characterization of functional materials properties, this book provides insight into fundamental and technological advances and future trends in key areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology.