This volume helps initiate a new science of memory. Currently, scientists study memory from many different perspectives - neurobiological, ethological, animal conditioning, cognitive, behavioural neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and social and cultural. This book brings together leading practitioners from all these approaches to come together to analyse and discuss 16 concepts that are critical to understanding memory. The contributors state their position of a particular concept and elucidate how the concept is used and how it should be used. For some concepts, there was general agreement across practitioners from different fields and levels of analysis, whereas for other concepts there was great disagreement. A final chapter in each of the 16 sections is devoted to particular concepts was written by another leading researcher whose task it was to integrate the various viewpoints and come to some conclusions about the concept at issue. This volume begins the new science of memory seeking a unified understanding of the topic.