This book seeks to explore how scientists across a number of countries managed to cope with the challenging circumstances created by World War II. No scientist remained unaffected by the outbreak of WWII. As the book shows, there were basically two opposite ways in which the war encroached on the life of a scientific researcher. In some cases, the outbreak of the war led to engagement in research in support of a war-waging country; in the other extreme, it resulted in their marginalisation. The book, starting with the most marginalised scientist and ending with those fully engaged in the war-effort, covers the whole spectrum of enormously varying scientific fates. Distinctive features of the volume include: a focus on the experiences of 'ordinary' scientists, rather than on figureheads like Oppenheimer or Otto Hahn contributions from a range of renowned academics including Mark Walker, an authority in the field of science in World War II a detailed study of the Netherlands during the German Occupation This richly illustrated volume will be of major interest to researchers of the history of science, World War II, and Modern History.