This book offers a systematic and critical engagement with 'sectarianism' in twentieth century Scotland. Stepping back from the received wisdom regarding Protestant-Catholic relations, it argues that modern Scotland is not characterized by sharp cleavages across religious lines. Differences between Protestant and Catholic in several key areas of Scottish political life have been grossly overplayed - Scotland is by no means 'Ulster without the guns'. Scotland is not a sectarian country and the Scottish past was not sectarian in the way many have claimed it to be. The question of religion in Scotland belongs within a wider debate than it has hitherto been placed. This study reveals the fact that memories - bitter memories - can outlive, and obscure, the demise of any basis in social reality.